Social Science for NMAT

SOCIOLOGY

– is the scientific study of human society and social relationships, which is considered a subjet within social science that includes study about political science, economics, and so on. It talks about human society, its origin, development, organizations, and institutions. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop.

Needs improvement

to lop a body of knowledge about human social activity, structures, and functions.

SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORY

Macro-level theories – It approaches sociology that focuses primarily on social and other significant social units.

Structural functionalists – usually more optimistic and view society as a system of differentiated, interrelated elements that move towards stability.

Conflict Theorists – More pessimistic and view society as full of conflicting elements that can play a role in social changes and even upheaval.

Micro-level Theories –deals with individual interactions within smaller social units.

ACCULTURATION

  • It is the process by which a group adjusts to living within a dominant culture while at the same time maintaining its original cultural identity.

EXAMPLE

  • The granddaughter of an Indian migrant has gone to an American school and will now attend an American college. She spends time primarily with her American friends, dresses as they do, and shares their values and interests. She has become highly acculturated into American culture.

ENCULTURATION

  • It is the process of learning one’s culture through informal observation and formal instruction.
  • Similar to socialization, particularly social knowledge and skills

Examples: picking up a southern American accent within a day or two

CULTURE

  • It is the sum of total ideas, beliefs, values, material cultural equipment, and non-material aspects that man makes a society member.
  • Culture can be conceived as a continuous, cumulative reservoir containing material and non-material elements that are socially transmitted from generation to generation.

COMPONENTS OF CULTURE

Material culture – consists of all the physical objects people have borrowed, discovered, or invented and to which they have attached meaning—for example, natural resources, plants, etc.

  • Non-material culture– consists of intangible creations or things that we cannot identify directly through the senses. examples belief, values, norms, folkways, etc

 

COMPONENTS OF NON MATERIAL CULTURE

  • Belief – the first component of non-material culture is the belief that people accept as accurate, concerning how the world operates and where the individual fits in the relationship with others. It can be rooted in blind faith, experience, tradition, or the scientific method.
  • Values- represents society’s stipulation about what is acceptable in life
  • Norms – standards of behavior governing social situations that are established by a society’s values

TYPES OF NORMS

  • Folkways – traditional patterns of everyday life specify what is socially correct and proper in everyday life.
  • Mores – Norms that are tied to a society’s core values and to which people must adhere. Unlike folkways, they are seen as forms of truth that all people should understand and follow.
  • Taboos – are a norm that society holds so firmly that violating them results in extreme disgust. Often the violators of the taboos are considered to be unfit to live in the community.
  • Laws – norms that the particular organization formally endorses.
  • Sanction – a threatened penalty for disobeying a law or rule.
  • Language – the system of symbols that have specific arbitrary meaning in a given society.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE

  • Ordered, systematic, integrated
  • Shared
  • Weakly bounded
  • Learned
  • Symbolic and is found in our behavior
  • Fluid and is changing
  • Varied
  • Political corporate

SUB-CULTURE

  • Refers to the attitude of a particular group from the customary practices of the majority. For example, new dressing styles, language, and other methods of a group of people different from another majority.

STEREOTYPE- This is any commonly known public belief about a particular social group or a type of individual.

  • Gender stereotype
  • Sexual Orientation stereotypes
  • Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component, prejudice as the effective and discriminating as the behavioral.

SOCIAL CHANGE

  • It is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon. Both endogenous (internal to the society concerned) and exogenous (external to the institution concerned) factors influence social changes.
  • Many people interact initially with the stereotype rather than with the actual person.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

  • Is the socio-economic layering of society’s members according to property, power, and prestige?

Socialization – is the lifelong process of learning how to become functioning, contributing members of society. Through this mechanism, the heritage and culture of a community can be passed on from generation to generation. This allows society to survive and even proliferate beyond the lifespan of individual members.

OPEN CLASS SYSTEM

  • An economic system with upward and downward mobility is achievement-based and allows social relations between the classes. Industrialized nations tend to have an open class system.

CLOSED CLASS SYSTEM-

  • They have been confined to their traditional occupations, and their social status has been chiefly prescribed by birth. Most closed class systems are found in less industrialized countries.
  • An example of a closed class system with limited social mobility is French society before the french revolution.
  • Under the ancient regime, French society was divided between the first estate (clergy), second estate (nobility), and the third estate commoners). Members of each estate were likely to socialize only with others in the same group.

ASCRIBED STATUS

  • The social status of a person that is given from birth or assumed involuntarily later in life.
  • It is the social position one is born into and personal characteristics beyond one’s control, such as race and gender.
  • A person’s social status is acquired, such as being an Olympic athlete, being a criminal, or being a college professor. It is one’s social standing that depends on personal accomplishments.

ACHIEVED STATUS

  • In an open class system, people are ranked by achieved status, whereas in a closed class system, people are ranked by ascribed status.

STRUCTURAL MOBILITY

  • Opportunity for movement in a social class that is attributable to changes in the social structure

Of a society, rather than to changes in an individual.