Introductin to Biochemistry, Its relationship with diseases and medicine ; and important terms often used in Biochemistry

Importance of Biochemistry, Its relationship with diseases and medicine; and human genomes

In this very first section of biochemistry, we are going to have an overview of biochemistry in the most concise language where we would be described in brief about the very basic aspects of biochemistry. Biochemistry, also known as the language of medicine because it provides us with the very basic, relevant key information required for understanding the health and diseases. Thus there exists a very close relationship between health, disease, and biochemistry. The various aspects of health and diseases are so interrelated that in absence of knowledge of biochemistry, it is in vain to try to understand medicine. The different fields of medicine like cell biology, physiology, immunology, microbiology, pharmacology, cell injury, cancer, and inflammation are only because of the research and knowledge of biochemistry.

In medicine, there are two fundamental concepts:

  1. Understanding and maintenance of health
  2. Effective treatment of the disease diagnosed

Both o these concepts require the understanding of biochemistry.

The interrelationship between biochemistry, diseases, and medicine can be more clear from the table given below:

Elements of Biochemistry Manifestations of Abnormal Biochemistry
1.       Nucleic Acid2.       Protein

3.       Lipid

4.       Carbohydrate

1.       Genetic Diseases2.       Sickle Cell Anaemia

3.       Atherosclerosis

4.       Diabetes Mellitus


In the above table, we can see that the genetic diseases, sickle cell anemia, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus are all the manifestations of abnormal biochemistry of nucleic acid, protein, lipid and carbohydrate and their treatment or normal condition is possible only by turning back the existing status of biochemistry to the normal biochemistry as it was during the time of healthy condition.


Why the normal biochemical process is considered to be the basis of health

Health is defined in different ways according to the time and situation. For example, the World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. When we correlate the health with biochemistry, it’s definition changes to, the state when all the biochemical functions of the body happen in the proper way without any kinds of disturbance of abnormalities. There are different reasons why diseases occur. Sometimes the infectious diseases and polluted environment are the major diseases causing factors whereas sometimes we see the causes of diseases happen to be something different than that of the infectious diseases and polluted environment. For example when the function of the biochemistry becomes abnormal like the disturbance in the balance of electrolytes in the body or defective ingestion and absorption of the nutrients. To prevent or cure such hazards of abnormal biochemistry, the knowledge of biochemistry is the must.

Human Genome, Biochemistry, Biology and Medicine

Human genome refers to the whole sets of genes available in the body. The study and research on the human genome have revealed that the genome has a lot of impact on biochemistry, biology, and medicine at the molecular level. Since the time, the human genome and gene sequencing came into practice, there has been the evolution in the field of medicine and biology. The mutations of the genomes of the model organisms such as yeast and other eukaryotes have been continuously contributing to the advancement of biochemistry and medicine. Such developing advancement has been boon in the modern medicines and treatment of diseases like cancer. Thus the study and research on the human genome have influenced many disciplines and areas of research in medicine.


  1. Bioengineering – It refers to the use of methods of engineering in the field of biology and medicine to create some sorts of new species or drugs.
  2. Bioethics – Bioethics deals with the ethical and moral principle to biology and medicine for their advancement or for their utilization.
  3. Bioinformatic – All the data related to the biochemical molecules or living organisms are known to be bioinformatics.
  4. Biophysics – It refers to the use of theories of physics in the field of biology and medicine
  5. Gene therapy – It means replacement of the existing gene in the body with new genes no matter it is natural or artificial.
  6. Genome and Genomics – The complete set of the gene in an organism is called genome whereas genomics refers to their study.
  7. Glycomics – The term glycomics is derivative of glycome which means carbohydrate, therefore, glycomics means the study of glycome or carbohydrate.
  8. Molecular Diagnostics – Use of molecular approach in the diagnosis of diseases is called molecular diagnostics.
  9. Pharmacogenomics – The use of data from genetics to discover and develop drugs or medicine is called pharmacogenomics.


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