Biology for NMAT

Cell Biology
• The cell is the structural and functional unit of life.
• Cytology includes the study of cell organelles and cell inclusion whereas cell biology means the study of cell organelles, cell inclusion, and the physiology, chemistry, and genetics if cell.
• Cytology deals with structure and form of the cell and the cell biology deals with the structure and function both.
• Cell theory says that cell is the structural and functional unit of life and all of the existing cells are formed from the pre-existing cells.
• Father of Cytology: Robert Hooke
• Father of Cell biology: Swanson

Cell Organelles
• Mitochondria: the powerhouse, electric house of the cell, cellular furnace or the ATP mills
• Chloroplast: Kitchen house photosynthetic apparatus
• Nucleus: Control center of cell, brain or director of cell, hereditary apparatus.
• Endoplasmic reticulum: Working bench of cell pipeline of the cell, membrane factory of the cell.
• Ribosome: Protein factory of the cell
• Lysosome: Suicidal bag, a scavenger of cell, housekeeper, atom bomb disposal unit
• Chromosome: vehicle or bearer of gene
• Sphaerosome: plant Lydian or oil storing bodies
• Peroxisome: Uricosome
• Glyoxysome: Highly specialized peroxisome
• Transosome: Triple membrane, found in the ovarian follicles of bird

Cell Structure and the main function
• Cell wall: Protect cell from excessive endosmosis
• Cell membrane: passage of materials in and out of the cell.
• Mitochondria: ATP production
• Leucoplast: store food
• Chromoplast: Gives color
• Cell coat: Recognition of self and Nonself cell
• Chloroplast: produce starch
• Nucleolus: Produce ribosome, Ribosomal factory of the cell
• Chromosome: Control heredity
• Endoplasmic reticulum: Export item, the formation of glyoxysome, exine of pollen detoxification, helps in cellular transport.
• Golgi body: help in secretion and storage of secretion chemically modify and transport material received by it, call plate formation during cytokinesis
• Ribosome: protein synthesis
• Lysosome: Mainly intracellular and extracellular digestion of macromolecules, autolysis
• Sphaerosome: Behaves as ribosome in plants, synthesis, and storage of fat
• Peroxisome: Hydrogen peroxide formation and break down
, photorespiration
• Vacuoles: store secretion and provide buoyancy
• Microtubules: Form structural components of cilia, flagella, spindle fiber, centriole, astral rays
• Microfilament: Exocytosis, endocytosis cyclosis
• Cilia and flagella: Cellular movement
• Centriole: forms astral rays and basal body.

Types of transportation
• Active Transportation
• Passive Transpiration
• Active Transportation: The transportation in which it occurs from lower concentration to higher concentration where there is a need for external energy or protein like carrier protein
• Passive Transportation: Occur from higher concentration to lower concentration

.Types of passive transportation
• Osmosis: Special form if diffusion where fluid moves from higher concentration to the lower concentration.
• Diffusion: Movement of molecules especially the gaseous molecules
• Isotonic solution: whose concentration is the same as cell sap.
• Hypotonic solution: whose concentration is less than that of cell so
• Hypertonic: solution: whose concentration is more than that of the cell sap
• Endocytosis: Movement of large material, particles, organism, or large molecules
• In endocytosis, the plasma membrane surrounds the material and membrane fuse to form the vesicle
• Two types of endocytosis are there 1. Phagocytosis: Cell eating 2. Pinocytosis: cell drinking
• Exocytosis is opposite of the endocytosis where cell discharges material and vesicle move to the cell surface, the cell membrane of vesicle fuses and the material is expelled finally.
Energy Generation and Metabolism
• Metabolism: All the chemical process that is carried out in the body
• Catabolism: Chemical activities where large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
• Anabolism: Opposite of Catholics where smaller molecules combine together to form larger molecules
• Autotroph: Those organisms which acquire their energy from the sunlight it inorganic chemicals.
• Heterotroph: Those organisms which obtain their energy from you consuming and degrading organic molecules.


Aerobic break down of food consist of four stages:

  1. Glycolysis: A 10 steps biochemical pathway where a glucose molecule of six carbon is split into 2 molecules of pyruvate of three carbon. To begin the process, 2 ATP must be invested. Energy generated from the reaction is captured in the form of 4 molecules of ATP molecules and high energy electrons are trapped in the reduction of 2 molecules NAD to NADH.

The remaining steps are collectively are called respiration.

  • The Pyruvate Oxidation: In a single step a carbon is removed from pyruvate as CO, leaving two of the original carbons attached to the co-enzyme-A. The complex is called acetyl Co-A. In this process, one NADH molecule is produced.
  • Krebs Cycle: A 9 steps biochemical pathway that converts all of the remaining carbons from the original glucose into COand yields 1 ATP, and traps high energy electrons in 3NADH, AND 1FADH per Acetyl Co-A.
  • Electron Transfer Chain: The high energy electrons trapped in NADH and FADH in glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the Krebs cycle are used to produce ATP through chemiosmosis. O2 is the final acceptor of high energy electrons.


Secretes hormones that travel through bloodstream ·         Actions relatively slow ·         Effects are prolonged
Electrochemical impulses via Neurons ·         Rapid response ·         Effects are brief

These two systems are closely coordinated in automatically controlling the functions of the body.

  • There are two types of gland in the body
  • Endocrine gland: Ductless glands that transport their secretions via the bloodstream to the target cell. For example adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and pancreas.
  • Exocrine: Ducts are present to transport the secretion to the target organs. For example, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas.


The pancreas is a gland with both endocrine (insulin production) and exocrine (production of digestive enzymes)

  • The hormone is a chemical substance that is produced in minute quantities by an endocrine that is carried by the bloodstream and it changes the activity of one or more specific target organs and finally it is destroyed by the liver.
  • Derived from the amino acids or cholesterol, also acts as chemical messengers
  • The three basic types are:
  1. Protein
  2. Steroid
  3. Amines